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by hans christian andersen.
Start of Story
Age Rating 10 plus.
Beyond this was the witch's house, which stood in the center of a
strange forest, where all the trees and flowers were polypi, half
animals and half plants. They looked like serpents with a hundred heads,
growing out of the ground. The branches were long, slimy arms, with
fingers like flexible worms, moving limb after limb from the root to the
top. All that could be reached in the sea they seized upon and held
fast, so that it never escaped from their clutches.
The little mermaid was so alarmed at what she saw that she stood still
and her heart beat with fear. She came very near turning back, but she
thought of the prince and of the human soul for which she longed, and
her courage returned. She fastened her long, flowing hair round her
head, so that the polypi should not lay hold of it. She crossed her
hands on her bosom, and then darted forward as a fish shoots through the
water, between the supple arms and fingers of the ugly polypi, which
were stretched out on each side of her. She saw that they all held in
their grasp something they had seized with their numerous little arms,
which were as strong as iron bands. Tightly grasped in their clinging
arms were white skeletons of human beings who had perished at sea and
had sunk down into the deep waters; skeletons of land animals; and oars,
rudders, and chests, of ships. There was even a little mermaid whom they
had caught and strangled, and this seemed the most shocking of all to
the little princess.
She now came to a space of marshy ground in the wood, where large, fat
water snakes were rolling in the mire and showing their ugly,
drab-colored bodies. In the midst of this spot stood a house, built of
the bones of shipwrecked human beings. There sat the sea witch, allowing
a toad to eat from her mouth just as people sometimes feed a canary with
pieces of sugar. She called the ugly water snakes her little chickens
and allowed them to crawl all over her bosom.
"I know what you want," said the sea witch. "It is very stupid of you,
but you shall have your way, though it will bring you to sorrow, my
pretty princess. You want to get rid of your fish's tail and to have two
supports instead, like human beings on earth, so that the young prince
may fall in love with you and so that you may have an immortal soul."
And then the witch laughed so loud and so disgustingly that the toad and
the snakes fell to the ground and lay there wriggling.
"You are but just in time," said the witch, "for after sunrise to-morrow
I should not be able to help you till the end of another year. I will
prepare a draft for you, with which you must swim to land to-morrow
before sunrise; seat yourself there and drink it. Your tail will then
disappear, and shrink up into what men call legs.
"You will feel great pain, as if a sword were passing through you. But
all who see you will say that you are the prettiest little human being
they ever saw. You will still have the same floating gracefulness of
movement, and no dancer will ever tread so lightly. Every step you take,
however, will be as if you were treading upon sharp knives and as if the
blood must flow. If you will bear all this, I will help you."
"Yes, I will," said the little princess in a trembling voice, as she
thought of the prince and the immortal soul.
"But think again," said the witch, "for when once your shape has become
like a human being, you can no more be a mermaid. You will never return
through the water to your sisters or to your father's palace again. And
if you do not win the love of the prince, so that he is willing to
forget his father and mother for your sake and to love you with his
whole soul and allow the priest to join your hands that you may be man
and wife, then you will never have an immortal soul. The first morning
after he marries another, your heart will break and you will become foam
on the crest of the waves."
"I will do it," said the little mermaid, and she became pale as death.
"But I must be paid, also," said the witch, "and it is not a trifle that
I ask. You have the sweetest voice of any who dwell here in the depths
of the sea, and you believe that you will be able to charm the prince
with it. But this voice you must give to me. The best thing you possess
will I have as the price of my costly draft, which must be mixed with my
own blood so that it may be as sharp as a two-edged sword."
"But if you take away my voice," said the little mermaid, "what is left
"Your beautiful form, your graceful walk, and your expressive eyes.
Surely with these you can enchain a man's heart. Well, have you lost
your courage? Put out your little tongue, that I may cut it off as my
payment; then you shall have the powerful draft."
"It shall be," said the little mermaid.
Then the witch placed her caldron on the fire, to prepare the magic
"Cleanliness is a good thing," said she, scouring the vessel with snakes
which she had tied together in a large knot. Then she pricked herself in
the breast and let the black blood drop into the caldron. The steam that
rose twisted itself into such horrible shapes that no one could look at
them without fear. Every moment the witch threw a new ingredient into
the vessel, and when it began to boil, the sound was like the weeping of
a crocodile. When at last the magic draft was ready, it looked like the
"There it is for you," said the witch. Then she cut off the mermaid's
tongue, so that she would never again speak or sing. "If the polypi
should seize you as you return through the wood," said the witch, "throw
over them a few drops of the potion, and their fingers will be torn into
a thousand pieces." But the little mermaid had no occasion to do this,
for the polypi sprang back in terror when they caught sight of the
glittering draft, which shone in her hand like a twinkling star.
So she passed quickly through the wood and the marsh and between the
rushing whirlpools. She saw that in her father's palace the torches in
the ballroom were extinguished and that all within were asleep. But she
did not venture to go in to them, for now that she was dumb and going to
leave them forever she felt as if her heart would break. She stole into
the garden, took a flower from the flower bed of each of her sisters,
kissed her hand towards the palace a thousand times, and then rose up
through the dark-blue waters.
The sun had not risen when she came in sight of the prince's palace and
approached the beautiful marble steps, but the moon shone clear and
bright. Then the little mermaid drank the magic draft, and it seemed as
if a two-edged sword went through her delicate body. She fell into a
swoon and lay like one dead. When the sun rose and shone over the sea,
she recovered and felt a sharp pain, but before her stood the handsome
He fixed his coal-black eyes upon her so earnestly that she cast down
her own and then became aware that her fish's tail was gone and that she
had as pretty a pair of white legs and tiny feet as any little maiden
could have. But she had no clothes, so she wrapped herself in her long,
thick hair. The prince asked her who she was and whence she came. She
looked at him mildly and sorrowfully with her deep blue eyes, but could
not speak. He took her by the hand and led her to the palace.
Every step she took was as the witch had said it would be; she felt as
if she were treading upon the points of needles or sharp knives. She
bore it willingly, however, and moved at the prince's side as lightly as
a bubble, so that he and all who saw her wondered at her graceful,
swaying movements. She was very soon arrayed in costly robes of silk and
muslin and was the most beautiful creature in the palace; but she was
dumb and could neither speak nor sing.
Beautiful female slaves, dressed in silk and gold, stepped forward and
sang before the prince and his royal parents. One sang better than all
the others, and the prince clapped his hands and smiled at her. This was
a great sorrow to the little mermaid, for she knew how much more sweetly
she herself once could sing, and she thought, "Oh, if he could only know
that I have given away my voice forever, to be with him!"
The slaves next performed some pretty fairy-like dances, to the sound of
beautiful music. Then the little mermaid raised her lovely white arms,
stood on the tips of her toes, glided over the floor, and danced as no
one yet had been able to dance. At each moment her beauty was more
revealed, and her expressive eyes appealed more directly to the heart
than the songs of the slaves. Every one was enchanted, especially the
prince, who called her his little foundling. She danced again quite
readily, to please him, though each time her foot touched the floor it
seemed as if she trod on sharp knives.
The prince said she should remain with him always, and she was given
permission to sleep at his door, on a velvet cushion. He had a page's
dress made for her, that she might accompany him on horseback. They rode
together through the sweet-scented woods, where the green boughs touched
their shoulders, and the little birds sang among the fresh leaves. She
climbed with him to the tops of high mountains, and although her tender
feet bled so that even her steps were marked, she only smiled, and
followed him till they could see the clouds beneath them like a flock of
birds flying to distant lands. While at the prince's palace, and when
all the household were asleep, she would go and sit on the broad marble
steps, for it eased her burning feet to bathe them in the cold sea
water. It was then that she thought of all those below in the deep.
Once during the night her sisters came up arm in arm, singing
sorrowfully as they floated on the water. She beckoned to them, and they
recognized her and told her how she had grieved them; after that, they
came to the same place every night. Once she saw in the distance her
old grandmother, who had not been to the surface of the sea for many
years, and the old Sea King, her father, with his crown on his head.
They stretched out their hands towards her, but did not venture so near
the land as her sisters had.
As the days passed she loved the prince more dearly, and he loved her as
one would love a little child. The thought never came to him to make her
his wife. Yet unless he married her, she could not receive an immortal
soul, and on the morning after his marriage with another, she would
dissolve into the foam of the sea.
"Do you not love me the best of them all?" the eyes of the little
mermaid seemed to say when he took her in his arms and kissed her fair
"Yes, you are dear to me," said the prince, "for you have the best heart
and you are the most devoted to me. You are like a young maiden whom I
once saw, but whom I shall never meet again. I was in a ship that was
wrecked, and the waves cast me ashore near a holy temple where several
young maidens performed the service. The youngest of them found me on
the shore and saved my life. I saw her but twice, and she is the only
one in the world whom I could love. But you are like her, and you have
almost driven her image from my mind. She belongs to the holy temple,
and good fortune has sent you to me in her stead. We will never part.
"Ah, he knows not that it was I who saved his life," thought the little
mermaid. "I carried him over the sea to the wood where the temple
stands; I sat beneath the foam and watched till the human beings came to
help him. I saw the pretty maiden that he loves better than he loves
me." The mermaid sighed deeply, but she could not weep. "He says the
maiden belongs to the holy temple, therefore she will never return to
the world--they will meet no more. I am by his side and see him every
day. I will take care of him, and love him, and give up my life for his
Very soon it was said that the prince was to marry and that the
beautiful daughter of a neighboring king would be his wife, for a fine
ship was being fitted out. Although the prince gave out that he
intended merely to pay a visit to the king, it was generally supposed
that he went to court the princess. A great company were to go with him.
The little mermaid smiled and shook her head. She knew the prince's
thoughts better than any of the others.
"I must travel," he had said to her; "I must see this beautiful
princess. My parents desire it, but they will not oblige me to bring her
home as my bride. I cannot love her, because she is not like the
beautiful maiden in the temple, whom you resemble. If I were forced to
choose a bride, I would choose you, my dumb foundling, with those
expressive eyes." Then he kissed her rosy mouth, played with her long,
waving hair, and laid his head on her heart, while she dreamed of human
happiness and an immortal soul.
"You are not afraid of the sea, my dumb child, are you?" he said, as
they stood on the deck of the noble ship which was to carry them to the
country of the neighboring king. Then he told her of storm and of calm,
of strange fishes in the deep beneath them, and of what the divers had
seen there. She smiled at his descriptions, for she knew better than
any one what wonders were at the bottom of the sea.
In the moonlight night, when all on board were asleep except the man at
the helm, she sat on deck, gazing down through the clear water. She
thought she could distinguish her father's castle, and upon it her aged
grandmother, with the silver crown on her head, looking through the
rushing tide at the keel of the vessel. Then her sisters came up on the
waves and gazed at her mournfully, wringing their white hands. She
beckoned to them, and smiled, and wanted to tell them how happy and well
off she was. But the cabin boy approached, and when her sisters dived
down, he thought what he saw was only the foam of the sea.
The next morning the ship sailed into the harbor of a beautiful town
belonging to the king whom the prince was going to visit. The church
bells were ringing, and from the high towers sounded a flourish of
trumpets. Soldiers, with flying colors and glittering bayonets, lined
the roads through which they passed. Every day was a festival, balls and
entertainments following one another. But the princess had not yet
appeared. People said that she had been brought up and educated in a
religious house, where she was learning every royal virtue.
At last she came. Then the little mermaid, who was anxious to see
whether she was really beautiful, was obliged to admit that she had
never seen a more perfect vision of beauty. Her skin was delicately
fair, and beneath her long, dark eyelashes her laughing blue eyes shone
with truth and purity.
"It was you," said the prince, "who saved my life when I lay as if dead
on the beach," and he folded his blushing bride in his arms.
"Oh, I am too happy!" said he to the little mermaid; "my fondest hopes
are now fulfilled. You will rejoice at my happiness, for your devotion
to me is great and sincere."
The little mermaid kissed his hand and felt as if her heart were already
broken. His wedding morning would bring death to her, and she would
change into the foam of the sea.
All the church bells rang, and the heralds rode through the town
proclaiming the betrothal. Perfumed oil was burned in costly silver
lamps on every altar. The priests waved the censers, while the bride and
the bridegroom joined their hands and received the blessing of the
bishop. The little mermaid, dressed in silk and gold, held up the
bride's train; but her ears heard nothing of the festive music, and her
eyes saw not the holy ceremony. She thought of the night of death which
was coming to her, and of all she had lost in the world.
On the same evening the bride and bridegroom went on board the ship.
Cannons were roaring, flags waving, and in the center of the ship a
costly tent of purple and gold had been erected. It contained elegant
sleeping couches for the bridal pair during the night. The ship, under a
favorable wind, with swelling sails, glided away smoothly and lightly
over the calm sea.
When it grew dark, a number of colored lamps were lighted and the
sailors danced merrily on the deck. The little mermaid could not help
thinking of her first rising out of the sea, when she had seen similar
joyful festivities, so she too joined in the dance, poised herself in
the air as a swallow when he pursues his prey, and all present cheered
her wonderingly. She had never danced so gracefully before. Her tender
feet felt as if cut with sharp knives, but she cared not for the pain; a
sharper pang had pierced her heart.
She knew this was the last evening she should ever see the prince for
whom she had forsaken her kindred and her home. She had given up her
beautiful voice and suffered unheard-of pain daily for him, while he
knew nothing of it. This was the last evening that she should breathe
the same air with him or gaze on the starry sky and the deep sea. An
eternal night, without a thought or a dream, awaited her. She had no
soul, and now could never win one.
All was joy and gaiety on the ship until long after midnight. She smiled
and danced with the rest, while the thought of death was in her heart.
The prince kissed his beautiful bride and she played with his raven hair
till they went arm in arm to rest in the sumptuous tent. Then all became
still on board the ship, and only the pilot, who stood at the helm, was
awake. The little mermaid leaned her white arms on the edge of the
vessel and looked towards the east for the first blush of morning--for
that first ray of the dawn which was to be her death. She saw her
sisters rising out of the flood. They were as pale as she, but their
beautiful hair no longer waved in the wind; it had been cut off.
"We have given our hair to the witch," said they, "to obtain help for
you, that you may not die to-night. She has given us a knife; see, it is
very sharp. Before the sun rises you must plunge it into the heart of
the prince. When the warm blood falls upon your feet they will grow
together again into a fish's tail, and you will once more be a mermaid
and can return to us to live out your three hundred years before you are
changed into the salt sea foam. Haste, then; either he or you must die
before sunrise. Our old grandmother mourns so for you that her white
hair is falling, as ours fell under the witch's scissors. Kill the
prince, and come back. Hasten! Do you not see the first red streaks in
the sky? In a few minutes the sun will rise, and you must die."
Then they sighed deeply and mournfully, and sank beneath the waves.
The little mermaid drew back the crimson curtain of the tent and beheld
the fair bride, whose head was resting on the prince's breast. She bent
down and kissed his noble brow, then looked at the sky, on which the
rosy dawn grew brighter and brighter. She glanced at the sharp knife and
again fixed her eyes on the prince, who whispered the name of his bride
in his dreams.
_She_ was in his thoughts, and the knife trembled in the hand of the
little mermaid--but she flung it far from her into the waves. The water
turned red where it fell, and the drops that spurted up looked like
blood. She cast one more lingering, half-fainting glance at the prince,
then threw herself from the ship into the sea and felt her body
dissolving into foam.
The sun rose above the waves, and his warm rays fell on the cold foam of
the little mermaid, who did not feel as if she were dying. She saw the
bright sun, and hundreds of transparent, beautiful creatures floating
around her--she could see through them the white sails of the ships and
the red clouds in the sky. Their speech was melodious, but could not be
heard by mortal ears--just as their bodies could not be seen by mortal
eyes. The little mermaid perceived that she had a body like theirs and
that she continued to rise higher and higher out of the foam. "Where am
I?" asked she, and her voice sounded ethereal, like the voices of those
who were with her. No earthly music could imitate it.
"Among the daughters of the air," answered one of them. "A mermaid has
not an immortal soul, nor can she obtain one unless she wins the love of
a human being. On the will of another hangs her eternal destiny. But the
daughters of the air, although they do not possess an immortal soul,
can, by their good deeds, procure one for themselves. We fly to warm
countries and cool the sultry air that destroys mankind with the
pestilence. We carry the perfume of the flowers to spread health and
"After we have striven for three hundred years to do all the good in our
power, we receive an immortal soul and take part in the happiness of
mankind. You, poor little mermaid, have tried with your whole heart to
do as we are doing. You have suffered and endured, and raised yourself
to the spirit world by your good deeds, and now, by striving for three
hundred years in the same way, you may obtain an immortal soul."
The little mermaid lifted her glorified eyes toward the sun and, for the
first time, felt them filling with tears.
On the ship in which she had left the prince there were life and noise,
and she saw him and his beautiful bride searching for her. Sorrowfully
they gazed at the pearly foam, as if they knew she had thrown herself
into the waves. Unseen she kissed the forehead of the bride and fanned
the prince, and then mounted with the other children of the air to a
rosy cloud that floated above.
"After three hundred years, thus shall we float into the kingdom of
heaven," said she. "And we may even get there sooner," whispered one of
her companions. "Unseen we can enter the houses of men where there are
children, and for every day on which we find a good child that is the
joy of his parents and deserves their love, our time of probation is
shortened. The child does not know, when we fly through the room, that
we smile with joy at his good conduct--for we can count one year less of
our three hundred years. But when we see a naughty or a wicked child we
shed tears of sorrow, and for every tear a day is added to our time of